Xanthium strumarium L.

Locations ofXanthium strumarium L. in Virginia

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Botanical Name
Xanthium strumarium L.
Common Name
Common Cocklebur
Flora of Virginia Name/Status
Xanthium strumarium L.
Two varieties, var. canadense (Miller) Torr. & Gray and var. glabratum (DC.) Cronq., occur in Virginia, but have not been distinguished previously on herbarium specimens. Var. canadense is said to be more frequent on the Atlantic coast than inland. The treatment here follows FNA in not recognizing varieties, a practical solution for inherently variable, weedy species. The original range of this cosmopolitan species is now obscure, but it is probably native to our area (Weakley 2012).
Floodplain forests and disturbed alluvial soils, streamside gravel and sand bars, interdune swales, dune grasslands, upper beaches and overwash flats, low roadsides, cultivated fields, wet pastures, and waste ground. Frequent throughout, except at higher elevations in the mountains.
Native Status

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