Circaea canadensis (L.) Hill

Locations ofCircaea canadensis (L.) Hill in Virginia

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Botanical Name
Circaea canadensis (L.) Hill
Common Name
Enchanter's Night-shade
Circaea canadensis (L.) Hill ssp. canadensis; Circaea lutetiana L. ssp. canadensis (L.) Ascherson & Magnus
Flora of Virginia Name/Status
Circaea canadensis (L.) Hill
The hybrid between this taxon and Circaea alpina, called Circaea × intermedia, has been found in Bedford County.

The taxonomic treatment of closely related Circaea in North America, Europe, and Asia has been controversial and evolving over the years. Most recently, Boufford (2005, Harvard Papers in Botany 9: 255-256) and Xie et al. (2009, Molec. Phylog. and Evol. 53 (2009) 995–1009) both recognize three taxa in the C. canadensis / lutetiana / quadrisulcata complex. Xie et al., followed by Flora of the Southeastern U.S. (FSUS) and Flora of Virginia, treat the North American plants as a species; Boufford treats them as a ssp. According to FSUS, "the question of appropriate taxonomic level remains."
Mesic to dry upland forests, well-drained floodplain forests, and swamp hummocks; favors moderately to strongly base-rich soils, especially in drier habitats. Common throughout.
Native Status

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