Oenothera biennis L. complex

Locations ofOenothera biennis L. complex in Virginia

Show image with county labels


Botanical Name
Oenothera biennis L. complex
Common Name
Common Evening-primrose
Oenothera glazioviana Micheli; Oenothera nutans Atkinson & Bartlett; Oenothera oakesiana (Gray) J.W.Robbins ex S.Watson & Coulter; Oenothera villosa Thunb. ssp. villosa
Flora of Virginia Name/Status
Oenothera biennis L.
The Oenothera biennis complex in Virginia comprises O. biennis, O. glazioviana, O. nutans, O. oakesiana, O. parviflora, and O. villosa ssp. villosa. Complex interaction of plastome and genome define these so-called species, which are problematic even for those that study them intensively. The few annotated specimens provide only sketchy distributional information. We are currently unable to map any of the individual members of this difficult and confusing complex, except for O. parviflora, which was included in earlier hard-copy editions of the Atlas. However, some of its records may represent the very closely allied O. oakesiana.
In aggregate, the members of this complex are common inhabitants of fields, pastures, roadsides, clearings, and other open, disturbed habitats throughout the state.
Native Status

To save this map, right-click (control-click for Mac users) on the map and choose "Save Image As...".